Wednesday, February 28

9 ways for Women to 'MAN UP' in Reenacting


Love it or hate it, women have been dressing as men in reenacting for ages. Some do it well and some need a little help to make a semi-passable gentleman. For assistance with this article I got help from two women who cross dress at reenactments, and who do it REALLY WELL. Some suggestions come from Mr. Vassermann (my good wife), with additional comments and suggestions from “An Anonymous Lady & Sometimes Gentleman, who wishes to remain unknown”, whose insightful contributions will be highlighted in RED.

Here are some suggestions for the ladies who want to cross-dress as a man and do it well!

9.) HIDE YOUR CURVES

Not every woman is built like an androgynous beanpole (my wife Maggie's own words), so it sometimes takes a little work to hide your womanly figure. Binding your bust is the first step, and can be done in a way that is not uncomfortable. Even a little bit helps the look. If you have a curvier bottom, like Vassermann does, wearing petticoat trousers over your pants can help hide that, as well as straight legged trousers that don't hug the form. Avoid breeches if possible as to hide delicate calves and ankles.

There are number of tutorials on the web for drag kings, actors, and cosplayers. Don't use an Ace bandage, as this can damage your muscles - depending on your cup size wear a sports bra or a gynecomastia binder.

8.) WEAR CLOTHES THAT FIT

In my own period of the War of 1812 the clothing includes tight pants and well-fitted jackets, and in most time periods clothes are meant to fit well, not hang on you. Ill-fitting clothes won't help you hide your figure - they just make you look like you stole your dad's or boyfriend's clothes. 

And even if your tight pants do show off your glorious behind, at least they look better than completely wrong baggy saggy trousers.

When Maggie and I created Vassermann (her male alter-ego) we decided that since she was so small to begin with, we'd scale all her clothing and accessories down to make her look bigger. Her clothing is made using mostly patterns for little boy's clothing, with her buttons being a little smaller than what is called for. If the Jacket called for a 1 inch button we'd use a 3/4 inch button instead. Vassermann’s belt and shoes are a little smaller as well.

The main goal being that we didn't want to to look like she was swimming in borrowed duds, but instead that Vassermann was a slight young man with clothes custom made for his frame.

7.) MAKE UP, MAKE UP, MAKE UP.

Nothing helps sell it like a little make up. Before we sent Vassermann into the field, we watched some excellent online tutorials on how to make women look more like male characters (thank you Youtube Cosplayers!) Some of the tips we took from the tutorials was the fill in the eyebrows a little bit to make them a little beefier, and to lighten the lips to make them a little less pink.

6.) SHOULDER PADS

Women's shoulders are naturally less square than men's shoulders, you might consider beefing up your shoulders with some simple pads.

You can include pads to widen your shoulders or waist in your clothes, and skillful tailoring can hide other parts of your body.

5.) YOUR HAIR

Long or short, you've got to do something with it… if you have a short haircut, style in in the fashion that men with short hair did. Take a look at some period portraits of gentlemen with short hair to seek inspiration. Take a comb and a little hair product and play in front of the mirror to get a look that's different than your everyday look.

Long hair? Don't just tie it back into a loose ponytail. Instead, braid or queue it in a period appropriate fashion like men with longer hair did.

... don't tuck [your hair] up into your hat. It fools no one.

4.) BODY LANGUAGE

...moving right is critical to looking male. Watch how men walk and sit and practice doing it. Practice walking confidently - get a male and female friend to watch you walk while you practice to criticize you. Throw your shoulders back and spread out. Take up lots of space at all times - when you sit, sprawl - and then sprawl more. Lean on things. Ooze out. Lounge. Practice when you're wearing your modern clothes, too. 

3.)  PULL YOUR WEIGHT

The most important thing you can do to be accepted as a cross-dresser costs nothing: pull your weight and learn how to be competent in camp and on the field. Learn how to do your job and how to do it well. If your impression involves carrying a musket purchase two five-pound weights and do exercises that simulate holding a musket. Learn the details of your weapon and your campaign. Learn how to put up a tent, dig a fire pit, clean a musket, and pack a trailer. Be there for set up and take down whenever you can. March and sleep in the rain and snow. Step in and get dirty, wet, and miserable.

2.)  BE A WORK IN PROGRESS

With Vassermann, we worked on the impression for a YEAR before we finally showed it off at an event.

Maybe you can't afford a well-fitted coat right now or do a single push-up or recite the armament of all the frigates of the Navy circa 1812, but get excited! Make plans. Read read read. And always be looking to improve yourself - every reenactor no matter what their gender should always be working on improving their knowledge and impression.

1.)  IF ALL ELSE FAILS, DON’T DO IT

If your body is extremely female or you're extremely out of shape, consider not cross-dressing, or not cross-dressing in all circumstances.

Let’s face it, cross dressing isn’t for everyone and not everyone CAN or WILL do it well.


Do you have any easy suggestions for reeanactors to improve their impressions? Please feel free to share them in the COMMENTS section below, we'd love to hear your ideas!
If you have enjoyed reading this or the other adventures of the HMS Acasta, be certain to become an honorary member of the crew. This is a easy way to show us that you're out there and paying attention. If you find a post that you are particularly fond of... be sure to share a link with your friends, over Facebook, Tumblr, Google Plus, etc. so they can enjoy it too!

The Acasta log is generally updated every weekday at 8am CST, visit back often, and encourage your History Nerd/Reenacting/Royal Navy friends to visit us.


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Images by Stefan Barges and Tony Gerard

Tuesday, February 27

Acasta in the News



An account of the proceedings and success of the Acasta and Ceres that appeared in
The Edinburgh Advertiser, Vol. LXX. No. 3630, Oct 9-12, 1798. 
The letter is written by the commander of the Acasta in '98, Captain RICHARD LANE. 

Monday, February 26

Gibraltar- The Greatest Siege in British History


Gibraltar- The Greatest Siege in British History
by Roy and Lesley Adkins

A book review by Acasta member Tony Gerard


Like most Americans I am abysmally ignorant of world history. All I really knew about Gibraltar was that it was, at one point, key to controlling sea trade between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, it was rocky and that it had been under siege. What a story that siege was!

The siege lasted three and a half years, the longest siege in British history. Spanish forces blockaded the peninsula by both land and sea. While supply ships did sometimes bring relief supplies, for the most part the inhabitants of Gibraltar were on their own. The fact that they outlasted and persevered is real testament to human endurance. It’s a riveting story and this husband and wife team tells it well.

The Adkinses write in a non-academic style which is very readable, a pleasant change from so many books dealing with historic topics. Serious students of history need not fear however, the authors provide plenty of direct historic quotes. In fact, the quotes from several different reoccurring characters was one of the aspects that really put a human face on the story for me. Another aspect that I appreciate is that the Adkinses don’t let military tactics and maneuvers become the dominant theme. While the military situation is thoroughly covered, the events and conditions for the civilian inhabitants of Gibraltar are given equal treatment.

Where background explanation is needed the authors provide brief digressions which are interesting and never so long or detailed that they detract from the main storyline. Just as with a novel, I often found myself reading longer than I had intended at a setting to “see how things turned out”. The book also includes an excellent set of maps which are arranged from larger to smaller in area. I found myself referring back to these for better visualization when military maneuvers were being described.

In summation this is a very interesting story well told, and I highly recommend this book. For most of us Acastas the siege was well within our adult historic lifetime and aspects could be included in a persona backstory. If you’re just a history buff this book is still a great read. And for all you Americans out there-the siege of Gibraltar has a direct bearing on our independence totally unknown to me! Read the book to find out…


Friday, February 23

7 Stupid things asked of Historical Reenactors

As reenactors we work with the public at historic sites and events all over. We invest small fortunes and zillions of hours of research to make sure that we are dressed and outfitted properly in order to teach history to the masses. Sometimes the public will ask really thoughtful, intelligent questions...

...and then, there's everyone else.

That being said, I believe that every question can be of value and that they all deserve to be answered... that's what people attend historical reenactments for, right? So, I take a second to answer even the most goofy questions...

7.) HOW DID YOU GET ALL THOSE FLAGS TO FLY THE SAME DIRECTION?
This is one of those questions I've never been asked personally, but I've heard stories of other reenactors being asked it. Maybe it's a reenactor 'urban legend'... I like to hope that people aren't stupid enough to really ask this sort of thing.


6.) ARE YOU NORTH OR SOUTH? (to any NON Civil War reenactor)
There is always at least ONE of these couples wandering around any historical event of any era at any given time. They wander up to your camp, see you cleaning your 1770s style brown bess flintlock musket while wearing your tricorn hat and buckle shoes to ask this one. They seem to be of the opinion that ALL reenactments MUST be of the Civil War variety.

5.) IS THAT A REAL BABY?
When I first got started in reenacting, my daughters were still quite young. One day I laid my youngest one down for a nap in a cabin at the site so she could get a nap in and not be crabby later. A mom and her son marched into the cabin, stomped over to the cradle loudly and practically shouted, "Hey look! Is that a real baby?" No nap THAT day.

4.) DO YOU REALLY LIVE/SLEEP HERE?
You've crammed your tiny vehicle full of your clothes, canvas, tent poles, coolers, camp furniture, gear, cots and enough blankets to smother an army. You get to the site early because you need several hours, and potentially a few friends to set it all up. Then, not only does the public ask this question of your tented weekend home, they generally wander on in without asking. Hey public, don't do that!

3.) AIN'T YOU HOT IN THAT COSTUME?
I'm wearing a wool coat in Kentucky in July and it's 98° in the shade,  yeah I'm a little toasty.  Aren't YOU a little hot in YOUR costume? Also while we're here... what I'm wearing isn't a 'costume', this is clothing. I only wear a costume on Halloween. If you think of your historical clothing merely as a costume, you're doing it wrong.


2.) ARE YOU REALLY GOING TO EAT THAT?
It never fails that you slave all day over a firepit at an event just to have a group approach and ask this one. This question is usually accompanied by a look of horror or disgust from the asker.  Are the people of the 21st Century so far removed form their food preparation that they don't know it when they see it?



1.) IS THAT REAL FIRE?
It never ceases to blow my mind that human beings in this modern age cannot identify REAL fire when they see or smell or feel it. The same people that ask this sort of question when confronted with a real fire are the same people who are allowed to operate heavy machinery, take care of children and vote! And to add insult to injury, their vote counts as much as yours does!

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AND check back every weekday at 8AM CST for your
daily dose of Royal Navy/History Nerdiness!

Thursday, February 22

In The News




The London Gazette 
Publication date:5 March 1814 
Issue:16864
Page:494


Wednesday, February 21

Meet LT McLean

HMS Acasta is proud to introduce to you, dear reader, the latest member of our esteemed company!

Shea W. McLean was born and raised in Mobile, AL and is of Scottish and English heritage. His father was a steamship agent in the Port of Mobile which is, presumably, how he received his fascination with all things maritime. McLean was an exchange student at Kings College, University of London, in 1986 and received his BA in History at the University of South Alabama in 1987. While still in college, he received his commission in the United States Army in 1984. After a brief stint in the Army, McLean decided to continue his education and received his MS in Nautical Archaeology at The Florida State University in 1997. Since then, McLean has pursued a lifelong career in nautical history and maritime archaeology. 

Over his 30+ year career as a marine archaeologist and museum curator, McLean has worked on a myriad of archaeological projects and is a member of several historical societies. His archaeological exploits range from early vessels of exploration (De Luna’s 1559 colonization fleet) to a number of civil war era vessels (Confederate submarine HL Hunley, CSS Alabama, etc.) with a healthy dose of colonial vessels in-between. 

McLean’s expertise and interest lay mainly with historic artifacts, ship construction, celestial navigation, and maritime history. He has been a living historian and reenactor since 1998.

McLean currently serves as the Curator of Battleship USS Alabama Memorial Park in Mobile, AL. He spends much of his time with his beloved wife Caroline Newton-Jones McLean (Portsmouth, Hampshire, UK) and his three cherished daughters: Brooke, Chelsea, and Katherine.



Tuesday, February 20

The Diary of George Hodge


From the article:

Diary of 18th century sailor provides fascinating insight into life below decks in Nelson's navy 

UPDATED: 07:35 EST, 14 August 2008 

"A unique record of the British navy between 1790 and 1833 that was compiled by a sailor has emerged in the US.

The diary of George Hodge shows the "below decks" view of life at sea during a crucial time for Britain's senior service.

The self-educated seaman begins the journal with the words: "George Hodge, his Book Consisting of Difrint ports & ships that I have sailed in since the year 1790. Aged 13 years." 

He recorded the ladies of leisure with whom he associated, painted stunning pictures of ships and flags as well as a self portrait.

Images of ordinary seamen from the time of Nelson's navy are very rare."

Be sure to read the rest of this article and see the rest of the images over at the Daily Mail:


Monday, February 19

Recent Updates


It is our pleasure to inform you, dear reader, that we have recently updated the CREW and SCHEDULE pages to be as accurate as possible.


The purpose of the HMS ACASTA and the ROYAL TARS of OLD ENGLAND is to accurately portray a crew of His Majesty's Royal Navy circa 1800-1810 for the educational benefit of the public and for the mutual research and enjoyment of the individual members.

Our organization will educate via a series of first person activities designed to demonstrate the real lives of sailors as they go about their business and live their lives. Landing Parties, Surveying Crews, Recruitment Drives, Press Gangs, Shore Leave... these are but a few of the activities that our crew will undertake whilst encamped at an event. During duty hours, we follow proper Navy protocols and sailors are expected to live a sailor's life.

You can learn more about our group on the ABOUT US page.

If you enjoy reading the adventures of HMS Acasta, be certain to become an honorary member of the crew. This is a easy way to show us that you're out there and paying attention. It is a simple matter really, there is a blue button at the bottom of the page that will allow you to join.

And Second, I would ask that you comment from time to time on the posts that interest you the most. This is an excellent way to let the crew of the Acasta know what you, the reader, is the most interested in seeing. It is always most gratifying to know what the readers like. For those of you that have commented in the past, we thank you for you support and interest!

If you find a post that you are particularly fond of... be sure to share a link with your friends, over Facebook, Tumblr, Google Plus, etc. so they can enjoy it too!

Thursday, February 15

Know Your Nelson 5



Wednesday, February 14

Acasta Marriages


94 ALLEGATIONS FOR MARRIAGE LICENCES IN HAMPSHIRE,

… Pabnall, Thomas, of H.M.S. Acasta, gunner, 21, b., & Ann Monk, of Portsmouth, a minor, with c of her m., Jane Monk, at Portsea, 8 Oct., 1801.

IN THE REGISTRY OF THE BISHOP OF WINCHESTER. 269

… Tayloe, William, of H.M.S. Acasta, w., & Jane White, of Pitsligo, Scotland, 21, sp., at Portsea, 26 Dec, 1801.

From: Hampshire allegations for marriage licences granted by the Bishop of Winchester, 1689 to 1837
EXTRACTED AND EDITED BY WILLIAM J. C. MOENS, F.S.A. LONDON 1893. 

Wednesday, February 7

Prickly Heat, Symptoms & Cure



     ...It consists of small red spots, somewhat resembling fleabites, and chiefly spread over those parts of the body which are covered with clothes, particularly the inside of the arms, thighs, breast, and forehead. This eruption is attended with a very troublesome itching, which is increased by warm liquids, or warm clothing. The spots are also rendered more numerous by the same means. This affection, though inconvenient, is considered as a mark of high health; and, in consequence of this idea, many persons suffer great anxiety, either on its disappearance, or because they have not so extensive an eruption of it as others. Hence an improper mode of treatment is often adopted by the patients themselves, who indulge in warm diluent liquors, which increase the eruption, and render the itching still more uncomfortable. The duration of this eruption, when left to itself, is very uncertain; at times it disappears entirely in a few minutes, and re-appears almost immediately after. The disease gradually ceases in proportion as the person becomes accustomed to the climate. With respect; to the treatment, all the precaution that is necessary is to keep moderately cool, to avoid drinking warm liquors when the itching is severe, and to take occasionally a gentle dose of salts.

Taken from: The Naval Surgeon Comprising the Entire Duties of Professional Men at Sea
By William Turnbull
1806

Page 236-237

Tuesday, February 6

The Articles of War 1757


THE ARTICLES OF WAR 1757

1. All commanders, captains, and officers, in or belonging to any of His Majesty's ships or vessels of war, shall cause the public worship of Almighty God, according to the liturgy of the Church of England established by law, to be solemnly, orderly and reverently performed in their respective ships; and shall take care that prayers and preaching, by the chaplains in holy orders of the respective ships, be performed diligently; and that the Lord's day be observed according to law.

2. All flag officers, and all persons in or belonging to His Majesty's ships or vessels of war, being guilty of profane oaths, cursings, execrations, drunkenness, uncleanness, or other scandalous actions, in derogation of God's honour, and corruption of good manners, shall incur such punishment as a court martial shall think fit to impose, and as the nature and degree of their offence shall deserve.

3. If any officer, mariner, soldier, or other person of the fleet, shall give, hold, or entertain intelligence to or with any enemy or rebel, without leave from the king's majesty, or the lord high admiral, or the commissioners for executing the office of lord high admiral, commander in chief, or his commanding officer, every such person so offending, and being thereof convicted by the sentence of a court martial, shall be punished with death.

4. If any letter of message from any enemy or rebel, be conveyed to any officer, mariner, or soldier or other in the fleet, and the said officer, mariner, or soldier, or other as aforesaid, shall not, within twelve hours, having opportunity so to do, acquaint his superior or a commanding officer, or if any superior officer being acquainted therewith, shall not in convenient time reveal the same to the commander in chief of the squadron, every such person so offending, and being convicted thereof by the sentence of the court martial, shall be punished with death, or such other punishment as the nature and degree of the offense shall deserve, and the court martial shall impose.

5. All spies, and all persons whatsoever, who shall come, or be found, in the nature of spies, to bring or deliver any seducing letters or messages from any enemy or rebel, or endeavor to corrupt any captain, officer, mariner, or other in the fleet, to betray his trust, being convicted of any such offense by the sentence of the court martial, shall be punished with death, or such other punishment, as the nature and degree of the offence shall deserve, and the court martial shall impose.

6. No person in the fleet shall receive an enemy or rebel with money, victuals, powder, shot, arms, ammunition, or any other supplies whatsoever, directly or indirectly, upon pain of death, or such other punishment as the court martial shall think fit to impose, and as the nature and degree of the crime shall deserve.

7. All the papers, charter parties, bills of lading, passports, and other writings whatsoever, that shall be taken, seized, or found aboard any ship or ships which shall be surprized or taken as prize, shall be duly preserved, and the very originals shall by the commanding officer of the ship which shall take such prize, be sent entirely, and without fraud, to the court of the admiralty, or such other court of commissioners, as shall be authorized to determine whether such prize be lawful capture, there to be viewed, made use of, and proceeded upon according to law, upon pain that every person offending herein, shall forfeit and lose his share of the capture, and shall suffer such further punishment, as the nature and degree of his offense shall be found to deserve, and the court martial shall impose.

8. No person in or belonging to the fleet shall take out of any prize, or ship seized for prize, any money, plate, or goods, unless it shall be necessary for the better securing thereof, or for the necessary use and service of any of His Majesty's ships or vessels of war, before the same be adjudged lawful prize in some admiralty court; but the full and entire account of the whole, without embezzlement, shall be brought in, and judgment passed entirely upon the whole without fraud, upon pain that every person offending hemin shall forfeit and lose his share of the capture, and suffer such further punishment as shall be imposed by a court martial, or such court of admiralty, according to the nature and degree of the offense.

9. If any ship or vessel be taken as prize, none of the officers, mariners, or other persons on board her, shall be stripped of their clothes, or in any sort pillaged, beaten, or evil-intreated, upon the pain that the person or persons so offending, shall be liable to such punishment as a court martial shall think fit to inflict.

10. Every flag officer, captain and commander in the fleet, who, upon signal or order of fight, or sight of any ship or ships which it may be his duty to engage, or who, upon likelihood of engagement, shall not make the necessary preparations for fight, and shall not in his own person, and according to his place, encourage the inferior officers and men to fight courageously, shall suffer death, or such other punishment, as from the nature and degree of the offence a court martial shall deem him to deserve; and if any person in the fleet shall treacherously or cowardly yield or cry for quarter, every person so offending, and being convicted thereof by the sentence of a court martial, shall suffer death.

11. Every person in the fleet, who shall not duly observe the orders of the admiral, flag officer, commander of any squadron or division, or other his superior officer, for assailing, joining battle with, or making defense against any fleet, squadron, or ship, or shall not obey the orders of his superior officer as aforesaid in the time of action, to the best of his power, or shall not use all possible endeavours to put the same effectually into execution, every person so offending, and being convicted thereof by the sentence of the court martial, shall suffer death, or such other punishment, as from the nature and degree of the offence a court martial shall deem him to deserve.

12. Every person in the fleet, who through cowardice, negligence, or disaffection, shall in time of action withdraw or keep back, or not come into the fight or engagement, or shall not do his utmost to take or destroy every ship which it shall be his duty to engage, and to assist and relieve all and every of His Majesty's ships, or those of his allies, which it shall be his duty to assist and relieve, every such person so offending, and being convicted thereof by the sentence of a court martial, shall suffer death.

13. Every person in the fleet, who though cowardice, negligence, or disaffection, shall forbear to pursue the chase of any enemy, pirate or rebel, beaten or flying; or shall not relieve or assist a known friend in view to the utmost of his power; being convicted of any such offense by the sentence of a court martial, shall suffer death.

14. If when action, or any service shall be commanded, any person in the fleet shall presume or to delay or discourage the said action or service, upon pretence of arrears of wages, or upon any pretence whatsoever, every person so offending, being convicted thereof by the sentence of the court martial, shall suffer death, or such other punishment, as from the nature and degree of the offense a court martial shall deem him to deserve.

15. Every person in or belonging to the fleet, who shall desert or entice others so to do, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as the circumstances of the offense shall deserve, and a court martial shall judge fit: and if any commanding officer of any of His Majesty's ships or vessels of war shall receive or entertain a deserter from any other of His Majesty's ships or vessels, after discovering him to be such deserter, and shall not with all convenient speed give notice to the captain of the ship or vessel to which such deserter belongs; or if the said ships or vessels are at any considerable distance from each other, to the secretary of the admiralty, or to the commander in chief; every person so offending, and being convicted thereof by the sentence of the court martial, shall be cashiered.

16. The officers and seamen of all ships appointed for convoy and guard of merchant ships, or of any other, shall diligently attend upon that charge, without delay, according to their instructions in that behalf; and whosoever shall be faulty therein, and shall not faithfully perform their duty, and defend the ships and goods in their convoy, without either diverting to other parts or occasions, or refusing or neglecting to fight in their defence, if they be assailed, or running away cowardly, and submitting the ships in their convoy to peril and hazard; or shall demand or exact any money or other reward from any merchant or master for convoying any ships or vessels entrusted to their care, or shall misuse the masters or mariners thereof; shall be condemned to make reparation of the damage to the merchants, owners, and others, as the court of admiralty shall adjudge, and also be punished criminally according to the quality of their offences, be it by pains of death, or other punishment, according as shall be adjudged fit by the court martial.

17. If any captain, commander, or other officer of any of His Majesty's ships or vessels, shall receive on board, or permit to be received on board such ship or vessel, any goods or merchandises whatsoever, other than for the sole use of the ship or vessel, except gold, silver, or jewels, and except the goods and merchandisers belonging to any merchant, or other ship or vessel which may be shipwrecked, or in imminent danger of being shipwrecked, either on the high seas, or in any port, creek, or harbour, in order to the preserving them for their proper owners, and except such goods or merchandisers as he shall at any time be ordered to take or receive on board by order of the lord high admiral of Great Britain, or the commissioners for executing the office of lord high admiral for the time being; every person so offending, being convicted thereof by the sentence of the court martial shall be cashiered, and be for ever afterwards rendered incapable to serve in any place or office in the naval service of His Majesty, his heirs and successors.

18. If any person in or belonging to the fleet shall make or endeavor to make any mutinous assembly upon any pretence whatsoever, every person offending herein, and being convicted thereof by the sentence of the court martial, shall suffer death: and if any person in or belonging to the fleet shall utter any words of sedition or mutiny, he shall suffer death, or such other punishment as a court martial shall deem him to deserve: and if any officer, mariner, or soldier on or belonging to the fleet, shall behave himself with contempt to his superior officer, being in the execution of his office, he shall be punished according to the nature of his offence by the judgment of a court martial.

19. If any person in the fleet shall conceal any traitorous or mutinous practice or design, being convicted thereof by the sentence of a court martial, he shall suffer death, or any other punishment as a court martial shall think fit; and if any person, in or belonging to the fleet, shall conceal any traitorous or mutinous words spoken by any, to the prejudice of His Majesty or government, or any words, practice, or design, tending to the hindrance of the service, and shall not forthwith reveal the same to the commanding officer, or being present at any mutiny or sedition, shall not use his utmost endeavours to suppress the same, he shall be punished as a court martial shall think he deserves.

20. If any person in the fleet shall find cause of complaint of the unwholesomeness of the victual, or upon other just ground, he shall quietly make the same known to his superior, or captain, or commander in chief, as the occasion may deserve, that such present remedy may be had as the matter may require; and the said superior, captain, or commander in chief, shall, as far as he is able, cause the same to be presently remedied; and no person in the fleet, upon any such or other pretence, shall attempt to stir up any disturbance, upon pain of such punishment, as a court martial shall think fit to inflict, according to the degree of the offence.

21. If any officer, mariner, soldier or other person in the fleet, shall strike any of his superior officers, or draw, or offer to draw, or lift up any weapon against him, being in the execution of his office, on any pretence whatsoever, every such person being convicted of any such offense, by the sentence of a court martial, shall suffer death; and if any officer, mariner, soldier or other person in the fleet, shall presume to quarrel with any of his superior officers, being in the execution of his office, or shall disobey any lawful command of any of his superior officers; every such person being convicted of any such offence, by the sentence of a court martial, shall suffer death, or such other punishment, as shall, according to the nature and degree of his offence, be inflicted upon him by the sentence of a court martial.

22. If any person in the fleet shall quarrel or fight with any other person in the fleet, or use reproachful or provoking speeches or gestures, tending to make any quarrel or disturbance, he shall, upon being convicted thereof, suffer such punishment as the offence shall deserve, and a court martial shall impose.

23. There shall be no wasteful expense of any powder, shot, ammunition, or other stores in the fleet, nor any embezzlement thereof, but the stores and provisions shall be careful preserved , upon pain of such punishment to be inflicted upon the offenders, abettors, buyers and receivers (being persons subject to naval discipline) as shall be by a court martial found just in that behalf.

24. Every person in the fleet, who shall unlawfully burn or set fire to any magazine or store of powder, or ship, boat, ketch, hoy or vessel, or tackle or furniture thereunto belonging, not then appertaining to an enemy, pirate, or rebel, being convicted of any such offence, by the sentence of a court martial, shall suffer death.

25. Care shall be taken in the conducting and steering of any of His Majesty's ships, that through willfulness, negligence, or other defaults, no ship be stranded, or run upon any rocks or sands, or split or hazarded, upon pain, that such as shall be found guilty therein, be punished by death, or such other punishment, as the offence by a court martial shall be judged to deserve.

26. No person in or belonging to the fleet shall sleep upon his watch, or negligently perform the duty imposed on him, or forsake his station, upon pain of death, or such other punishment as a court martial shall think fit to impose, and as the circumstances of the case shall require.

27. All murders committed by any person in the fleet, shall be punished with death by the sentence of a court martial.

28. If any person in the fleet shall commit the unnatural and detestable sin of buggery and sodomy with man or beast, he shall be punished with death by the sentence of a court martial.

29. All robbery committed by any person in the fleet, shall be punished with death, or otherwise, as a court martial, upon consideration of the circumstances, shall find meet.

30. Every officer or other person in the fleet, who shall knowingly make or sign a false muster or muster book, or who shall command, counsel, or procure the making or signing thereof, or who shall aid or abet any other person in the making or signing thereof, shall, upon proof of any such offence being made before a court martial, be cashiered, and rendered incapable of further employment in His Majesty's naval service.

31. No provost martial belonging to the fleet shall refuse to apprehend any criminal, whom he shall be authorized by legal warrant to apprehend, or to receive or keep any prisoner committed to his charge, or willfully suffer him to escape, being once in his custody, or dismiss him without lawful order, upon pain of such punishment as a court martial shall deem him fit to deserve; and all captains, officers, and others in the fleet, shall do their endeavour to detect, apprehend, and bring to punishment all offenders, and shall assist the officers appointed for that purpose therein, upon pain of being proceeded against, and punished by a court martial, according to the nature and degree of the offence.

32. If any flag officer, captain, or commander, or lieutenant belonging to the fleet, shall be convicted before a court martial of behaving in a scandalous, infamous, cruel, oppressive, or fraudulent manner, unbecoming the character of an officer, he shall be dismissed from His Majesty's service.

33. Every person being in actual service and full pay, and part of the crew in or belonging to any of His Majesty's ships or vessels of war, who shall be guilty of mutiny, desertion, or disobedience to any lawful command, in any part of His Majesty's dominions on shore, when in actual service relative to the fleet, shall be liable to be tried by a court martial, and suffer the like punishment for every such offence, as if the same had been committed at sea on board any of His Majesty's ships or vessels of war.

34. If any person who shall be in the actual service and full pay of His Majesty' ships and vessels of war, shall commit upon the shore, in any place or places out of His Majesty's dominions, any of the crimes punishable by these articles and orders, the person so offending shall be liable to be tried and punished for the same, in like manner, to all intents and purposes, as if the same crimes had been committed at sea, on board any of His Majesty's ships or vessels of war.

35. All other crimes not capital committed by any person or persons in the fleet, which are not mentioned in this act, or for which no punishment is hereby directed to be inflicted, shall be punished by the laws and customs in such cases used at sea.

Monday, February 5

Mail Packet Inspiration

Ready for a little added inspiration to create some awesome period mail for the Acastas that attend the Jane Austen Festival in July of this present year? Have a look at these images from the past that not only show some examples of what we got, but our various members enjoying them!