Thursday, April 18

Poor, Unfortunate Darby


Screen shot taken from: The Royal Naval and Military Calendar:
And National Record for 1821. By George Mackenzie

Wednesday, April 17

Meet Francis Decimus Hastings


HASTINGS.
Acasta Midshipman under Capt. Kerr, c.1811.

Francis Decimus Hastings entered the Navy, 19 Aug. 1807, as Third-cl. Vol., on board the Temeraire 98, Capts. Sir Chas. Hamilton and Edw. Sneyd Clay, successively stationed in the Channel and Baltic. In June, 1809, having attained the rating of Midshipman a few months previously, he removed to the Amethyst 36, Capt. Jacob Walton, with whom he appears to have been employed on Home service until wrecked in Plymouth Sound 16 Feb. 1811. He then joined, for a short period, the Acasta 40, Capt. Alex. Robt. Kerr ; after which we find him, until Aug. 1815, employed, on the Spanish, North American, Jamaica, and Home stations, latterly as Master's Mate, in the Iris 38, Capt. Hood Hanway Christian, St. Domingo 74, flag-ship of Sir John Borlase Warren, Emulous brig, Capt. Wm. M'Kenzie Godfrey, and Argo 44, and Ville de Paris 110, bearing the flags of Rear-Admiral Wm. Brown and Lord Keith.

Source: A NAVAL BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY: COMPRISING THE LIFE AND SERVICES OF EVERY LIVING OFFICER IN HER MAJESTY'S NAVY, FROM THE RANK OF ADMIRAL OF THE FLEET TO THAT OF LIEUTENANT, INCLUSIVE. Compiled from Authentic and Family Documents. BY WILLIAM E. O'BYRNE, ESQ.
LONDON: JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, PUBLISHER TO THE ADMIRALTY. 1849.


Above image is a cropped version of "Portrait of Augustus Leopold Kuper as a midshipman, in the year he entered the Royal Navy at the age of fourteen."
by FISCHER, T. Paul. London: June, 1823.

Tuesday, April 16

George Francis Seymour, Volunteer First Class

A portrait miniature of a young boy, thought to be
Sir George Francis Seymour (1787-1870), leaning on
an anchor, a ship in the distance by Richard Cosway,
Watercolour on ivory, 18th Century, Oval, 89mm (3 ½ in.) high
SEYMOUR, Kt., C.B., G.C.H.
Acasta Volunteer First Class under Capt. Fellowes, c.1802, aged approx 15.

Sir George Francis Seymour, born in Sept. 1787, is eldest son of the late Vice-Admiral Lord Hugh Seymour (fifth son of Francis, first Marquess of Hertford, K.G.) by Anne Horatia, third daughter of James, second Earl of Waldegrave...

This officer entered the Navy, 10 Oct. 1797, as Fst.-cl. Vol., on board the Princess Augusta yacht, Capt. Edw. Riou, lying in the river Thames; and from March, 1798, until May, 1802, was employed on the Channel and West India stations, the last two years and four months in the capacity of Midshipman, in the Sanspareil 80, Prince of Wales 98, and Sanspareil again, all flag-ships of his father, and Acasta 40, Capt. Edw. Fellowes. In the Prince of Wales he witnessed the surrender of Surinam in Aug. 1799 ; and in the Acasta he assisted in making a variety of prizes. He was subsequently, in the course of 1802-3, employed on the Home, Newfoundland, and Mediterranean stations, in the Endymion 40, Capt. John Larmour, Isis 50, hearing the flag of Vice-Admiral Jas. Gamhier, Endymion a second time, Capt. Hon. Chas. Paget, and Victory 100, bearing the flag of Lord Nelson...

...In 1818 Sir G. F. Seymour was appointed by his uncle, the Marquess of Hertford, then Lord Chamberlain, Serjeant-at-Arms to the House of Lords. From 4 Aug. 1830 until he resigned, 11 Nov. following, he was a Naval Aide-de-Camp to William IV.; under whom he filled the office of Master of the Robes from 13 Sept. 1830 until the period of his death.
Mezzotint of Admiral,
Sir George Francis Seymour
(1787-1870), Admiral of the Fleet.

Source: A NAVAL BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY: COMPRISING THE LIFE AND SERVICES OF EVERY LIVING OFFICER IN HER MAJESTY'S NAVY, FROM THE RANK OF ADMIRAL OF THE FLEET TO THAT OF LIEUTENANT, INCLUSIVE. Compiled from Authentic and Family Documents. BY WILLIAM E. O'BYRNE, ESQ.
LONDON: JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, PUBLISHER TO THE ADMIRALTY. 1849.

Monday, April 15

Lt. John Shepherd

SHEPHERD.
Acasta Lieutenant under Capt. Kerr, 10 July 1813 - July 1815.

John Shepherd (b) entered the Navy, 20 Aug. 1805, as Fst.-cl. Vol., on board the Addacious 74, Capt. John Lawford, with whom he continued employed in the Channel in the Impetdeux 74 until Oct. 1806. Between Feb. 1807 and Sept. 1811 he served off Eochefort and on the coast of Ireland, as Midshipman and Master's Mate, in the Eurydice, Druid, and Endimion frigates, all commanded by Capt. Sir Wm. Bolton. He then joined the Recruit sloop, Capt. Humphrey Fleming Senhouse, and Africa 64, flag-ship of Vice-Admiral Herbert Sawyer, both on the Halifax station; where he was made Lieutenant, 2 Feb. 1813, into the Spartan 38, Capt. Edw. Pelham Brenton, and transferred, 10 July following, to the Acasta 40, Capt. Alex. Robt. Kerr. He left that ship in July, 1815 ; was next, in April, 1823, and Aug. 1825, appointed to the Rifleman 18, Capt. Jas. Montagu, and Druid 46, Capt. Sam. Chambers, on the North American and Jamaica stations ; attained the rank of Commander 28 Aug. 1828 ; was nominated, 30 March, 1829, and (after eight months of half-pay) 7 April, 1831, Second-Captain of the Bauham 50, bearing the flag of Hon. Chas. Elphinstone Fleeming in the West Indies, and Donegal 78, Capts. John Dick and Arthur Fanshawe, on the Mediterranean and Lisbon stations, where he served until Aug. 1833; and from 4 April, 1837, until posted, 26 Oct. 1840, commanded the Sparrowhawk 16,'on the coast of North America and at the Cape of Good Hope. From 14 May until 7 Oct. 1846 he ofiiciated as Captain, pro tern,, of the St. Vincent 120, bearing the broad pendant of Sir Fras. Aug. Collier in the Channel ; and since 4 Dec. 1847 he has been in command of the Inconstant 36, on the south-east coast of America.

Source: A NAVAL BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY: COMPRISING THE LIFE AND SERVICES OF EVERY LIVING OFFICER IN HER MAJESTY'S NAVY, FROM THE RANK OF ADMIRAL OF THE FLEET TO THAT OF LIEUTENANT, INCLUSIVE. Compiled from Authentic and Family Documents. BY WILLIAM E. O'BYRNE, ESQ.
LONDON: JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, PUBLISHER TO THE ADMIRALTY. 1849.

Friday, April 12

Midshipman William Bowles

BOWLES, C.B., M.P.
Acasta Midshipman under Capts. Fellowes & Wood.

William Bowles, born in 1780, is eldest son of Wm. Bowles, Esq., of Heale House, co. Wilts, by Dinah, daughter of the late Sir Thos. Frankland, R.N., Admiral of the White ; nephew of the late Wm. Frankland, Esq., M.P., a Lord of the Admiralty, and of the late Sir Boyle Roche, Bart. ; and first cousin of the present Capts. Edw. Augustus and Chas. Colville Frankland, and Henry Gosset, R.N.

This officer entered the Navy, 9 Sept. 1796, as Fst.-cl. Vol., on board the Theseus 74, Capts. Augustus Montgomery and John Aylmer, employed in the Channel and off Cadiz ; removed with the latter officer, as Midshipman, in June, 1797, to the Captain 74 ; served, from May, 1798, to Nov. 1800, in the Daphne 20, Capts. Sir Chas. Lindsay and Rich. Matson, on the North Sea and West India stations ; then returned home in the Hydra frigate, Capt. Sir Fras. Laforey ; and after a consecutive attachment to the Royal William, Capt. Fras. Pickmore, lying at Spithead, Acasta frigate, Capts. Edw. Fellowes and Jas. Athol Wood, in the Mediterranean, and Driver sloop, Capt. Fras. Wm. Fane, was appointed, 22 July, 1803, Acting-Lieutenant of the Cambrian 40, Capts. Barclay and John Poo Beresford, on the Halifax station, where he was confirmed by commission dated on 30 of the following Aug. Mr. Bowles, whom we next find serving in the Leander 50, flag-ship of Sir Andrew Mitchell, and Milan 38, Capt. Sir Robt. Laurie, both on the coast of North America, was promoted to the rank of Commander 22 Jan. 1806...

Source: A NAVAL BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY: COMPRISING THE LIFE AND SERVICES OF EVERY LIVING OFFICER IN HER MAJESTY'S NAVY, FROM THE RANK OF ADMIRAL OF THE FLEET TO THAT OF LIEUTENANT, INCLUSIVE. Compiled from Authentic and Family Documents. BY WILLIAM E. O'BYRNE, ESQ.
LONDON: JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, PUBLISHER TO THE ADMIRALTY. 1849.

Thursday, April 11

Jefferson and the Tripoli Pirates

Today's book review in miniature is by Acasta member Nick Weremeichik

“Thomas Jefferson and the Tripoli Pirates: The Forgotten War That Changed American History” by Brian Kilmeade and Don Yaeger

While focusing on Federal America, this book gives great insight to the Mediterranean trade network from 1801-05. The Barbary states of Tunis, Algiers, Morocco and Tripoli were taking tribute money in exchange for safe passage to trade in the Mediterranean. Muslim North Africa has been impressing sailors for a long time (including Britons) but now involved Americans also. This book tells how America’s first international war (and navy) came about, the birth of the US Marines and state of the Mediterranean during the turn of the 19th century. The Battle of the Nile and Napoleon’s African campaign gets some mention, but the focus is on “them Yanks” and the North African pirates. 
The book reads like a novel, and walks you through this obscure history almost day by day. Plenty of sources to substantiate this work, and adds some greater context to the period we portray. I enjoyed it, it was a quick read as the pages start turning. Lots of information I didn’t know before. A for-sure recommendation.


Wednesday, April 10

Prickly Heat and how to Cure it



     ...It consists of small red spots, somewhat resembling fleabites, and chiefly spread over those parts of the body which are covered with clothes, particularly the inside of the arms, thighs, breast, and forehead. This eruption is attended with a very troublesome itching, which is increased by warm liquids, or warm clothing. The spots are also rendered more numerous by the same means. This affection, though inconvenient, is considered as a mark of high health; and, in consequence of this idea, many persons suffer great anxiety, either on its disappearance, or because they have not so extensive an eruption of it as others. Hence an improper mode of treatment is often adopted by the patients themselves, who indulge in warm diluent liquors, which increase the eruption, and render the itching still more uncomfortable. The duration of this eruption, when left to itself, is very uncertain; at times it disappears entirely in a few minutes, and re-appears almost immediately after. The disease gradually ceases in proportion as the person becomes accustomed to the climate. With respect; to the treatment, all the precaution that is necessary is to keep moderately cool, to avoid drinking warm liquors when the itching is severe, and to take occasionally a gentle dose of salts.

Taken from: The Naval Surgeon Comprising the Entire Duties of Professional Men at Sea
By William Turnbull
1806

Page 236-237

Tuesday, April 9

Rough Medicine


Rough Medicine, Surgeons at Sea in the Age of Sail 
by Joan Druett
a brief book review by Tony Gerard

Rough Medicine is a very interesting and readable book, although the title is a bit misleading. It might better be subtitled "Surgeons on Whaling Ships in the early to mid nineteenth century". The first chapter deals with the seventeenth century surgeon John Woodall's publication "The Surgeons Mate".  Druett makes some interesting comparisons about shipboard medicines recommended by Woodall and those carried on nineteenth century Whalers. It's remarkable how little changed over the ensuing centuries.

After that first chapter the rest of the book deals with the experiences of surgeons on whaling vessels, drawn largely from the writings of a number of surgeons so engaged. It's an interesting read, chapters deal with surgeons relation with Captains and crewmembers, native peoples in the south Pacific, the actual business of whaling, accidents aboard ship, fighting scurvy, the ship's medicine chest and more. Surgeons of the Royal Navy and the East India trade get a few passing mentions. 

 Although not focused on Naval surgeons specifically I recommend this book to anyone interested in shipboard medicine.

Monday, April 8

What Does the Surgeon Do?




From: Regulations and Instructions relating to His Majesty's Service at Sea.
Established by His Majesty in Council. 1790 Edition.

Friday, April 5

Dentistry in the 19th Century

The Tooth Key, Goat's Foot Elevator and Crane's Bill Forceps.

Thursday, April 4

Amputation Instruments in the 19th Century


From top to Bottom: Mechanical Tourniquet, Capital Amputation Saw, Metacarpal Saw and the Capital Amputation Knife.

Wednesday, April 3

The Gentleman's Magazine, Nov. 1812

Nov 1812 edition of 'The Genetleman's Magazine'

Page 478 from the Gentleman's Magazine Nov. 1812 issue.

Images from 1812 History.com

Tuesday, April 2

THE ARTICLES OF WAR 1757

THE ARTICLES OF WAR 1757



1. All commanders, captains, and officers, in or belonging to any of His Majesty's ships or vessels of war, shall cause the public worship of Almighty God, according to the liturgy of the Church of England established by law, to be solemnly, orderly and reverently performed in their respective ships; and shall take care that prayers and preaching, by the chaplains in holy orders of the respective ships, be performed diligently; and that the Lord's day be observed according to law.

2. All flag officers, and all persons in or belonging to His Majesty's ships or vessels of war, being guilty of profane oaths, cursings, execrations, drunkenness, uncleanness, or other scandalous actions, in derogation of God's honour, and corruption of good manners, shall incur such punishment as a court martial shall think fit to impose, and as the nature and degree of their offence shall deserve.

3. If any officer, mariner, soldier, or other person of the fleet, shall give, hold, or entertain intelligence to or with any enemy or rebel, without leave from the king's majesty, or the lord high admiral, or the commissioners for executing the office of lord high admiral, commander in chief, or his commanding officer, every such person so offending, and being thereof convicted by the sentence of a court martial, shall be punished with death.

4. If any letter of message from any enemy or rebel, be conveyed to any officer, mariner, or soldier or other in the fleet, and the said officer, mariner, or soldier, or other as aforesaid, shall not, within twelve hours, having opportunity so to do, acquaint his superior or a commanding officer, or if any superior officer being acquainted therewith, shall not in convenient time reveal the same to the commander in chief of the squadron, every such person so offending, and being convicted thereof by the sentence of the court martial, shall be punished with death, or such other punishment as the nature and degree of the offense shall deserve, and the court martial shall impose.

5. All spies, and all persons whatsoever, who shall come, or be found, in the nature of spies, to bring or deliver any seducing letters or messages from any enemy or rebel, or endeavor to corrupt any captain, officer, mariner, or other in the fleet, to betray his trust, being convicted of any such offense by the sentence of the court martial, shall be punished with death, or such other punishment, as the nature and degree of the offence shall deserve, and the court martial shall impose.

6. No person in the fleet shall receive an enemy or rebel with money, victuals, powder, shot, arms, ammunition, or any other supplies whatsoever, directly or indirectly, upon pain of death, or such other punishment as the court martial shall think fit to impose, and as the nature and degree of the crime shall deserve.

7. All the papers, charter parties, bills of lading, passports, and other writings whatsoever, that shall be taken, seized, or found aboard any ship or ships which shall be surprized or taken as prize, shall be duly preserved, and the very originals shall by the commanding officer of the ship which shall take such prize, be sent entirely, and without fraud, to the court of the admiralty, or such other court of commissioners, as shall be authorized to determine whether such prize be lawful capture, there to be viewed, made use of, and proceeded upon according to law, upon pain that every person offending herein, shall forfeit and lose his share of the capture, and shall suffer such further punishment, as the nature and degree of his offense shall be found to deserve, and the court martial shall impose.

8. No person in or belonging to the fleet shall take out of any prize, or ship seized for prize, any money, plate, or goods, unless it shall be necessary for the better securing thereof, or for the necessary use and service of any of His Majesty's ships or vessels of war, before the same be adjudged lawful prize in some admiralty court; but the full and entire account of the whole, without embezzlement, shall be brought in, and judgment passed entirely upon the whole without fraud, upon pain that every person offending hemin shall forfeit and lose his share of the capture, and suffer such further punishment as shall be imposed by a court martial, or such court of admiralty, according to the nature and degree of the offense.

9. If any ship or vessel be taken as prize, none of the officers, mariners, or other persons on board her, shall be stripped of their clothes, or in any sort pillaged, beaten, or evil-intreated, upon the pain that the person or persons so offending, shall be liable to such punishment as a court martial shall think fit to inflict.

10. Every flag officer, captain and commander in the fleet, who, upon signal or order of fight, or sight of any ship or ships which it may be his duty to engage, or who, upon likelihood of engagement, shall not make the necessary preparations for fight, and shall not in his own person, and according to his place, encourage the inferior officers and men to fight courageously, shall suffer death, or such other punishment, as from the nature and degree of the offence a court martial shall deem him to deserve; and if any person in the fleet shall treacherously or cowardly yield or cry for quarter, every person so offending, and being convicted thereof by the sentence of a court martial, shall suffer death.

11. Every person in the fleet, who shall not duly observe the orders of the admiral, flag officer, commander of any squadron or division, or other his superior officer, for assailing, joining battle with, or making defense against any fleet, squadron, or ship, or shall not obey the orders of his superior officer as aforesaid in the time of action, to the best of his power, or shall not use all possible endeavours to put the same effectually into execution, every person so offending, and being convicted thereof by the sentence of the court martial, shall suffer death, or such other punishment, as from the nature and degree of the offence a court martial shall deem him to deserve.

12. Every person in the fleet, who through cowardice, negligence, or disaffection, shall in time of action withdraw or keep back, or not come into the fight or engagement, or shall not do his utmost to take or destroy every ship which it shall be his duty to engage, and to assist and relieve all and every of His Majesty's ships, or those of his allies, which it shall be his duty to assist and relieve, every such person so offending, and being convicted thereof by the sentence of a court martial, shall suffer death.

13. Every person in the fleet, who though cowardice, negligence, or disaffection, shall forbear to pursue the chase of any enemy, pirate or rebel, beaten or flying; or shall not relieve or assist a known friend in view to the utmost of his power; being convicted of any such offense by the sentence of a court martial, shall suffer death.

14. If when action, or any service shall be commanded, any person in the fleet shall presume or to delay or discourage the said action or service, upon pretence of arrears of wages, or upon any pretence whatsoever, every person so offending, being convicted thereof by the sentence of the court martial, shall suffer death, or such other punishment, as from the nature and degree of the offense a court martial shall deem him to deserve.

15. Every person in or belonging to the fleet, who shall desert or entice others so to do, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as the circumstances of the offense shall deserve, and a court martial shall judge fit: and if any commanding officer of any of His Majesty's ships or vessels of war shall receive or entertain a deserter from any other of His Majesty's ships or vessels, after discovering him to be such deserter, and shall not with all convenient speed give notice to the captain of the ship or vessel to which such deserter belongs; or if the said ships or vessels are at any considerable distance from each other, to the secretary of the admiralty, or to the commander in chief; every person so offending, and being convicted thereof by the sentence of the court martial, shall be cashiered.

16. The officers and seamen of all ships appointed for convoy and guard of merchant ships, or of any other, shall diligently attend upon that charge, without delay, according to their instructions in that behalf; and whosoever shall be faulty therein, and shall not faithfully perform their duty, and defend the ships and goods in their convoy, without either diverting to other parts or occasions, or refusing or neglecting to fight in their defence, if they be assailed, or running away cowardly, and submitting the ships in their convoy to peril and hazard; or shall demand or exact any money or other reward from any merchant or master for convoying any ships or vessels entrusted to their care, or shall misuse the masters or mariners thereof; shall be condemned to make reparation of the damage to the merchants, owners, and others, as the court of admiralty shall adjudge, and also be punished criminally according to the quality of their offences, be it by pains of death, or other punishment, according as shall be adjudged fit by the court martial.

17. If any captain, commander, or other officer of any of His Majesty's ships or vessels, shall receive on board, or permit to be received on board such ship or vessel, any goods or merchandises whatsoever, other than for the sole use of the ship or vessel, except gold, silver, or jewels, and except the goods and merchandisers belonging to any merchant, or other ship or vessel which may be shipwrecked, or in imminent danger of being shipwrecked, either on the high seas, or in any port, creek, or harbour, in order to the preserving them for their proper owners, and except such goods or merchandisers as he shall at any time be ordered to take or receive on board by order of the lord high admiral of Great Britain, or the commissioners for executing the office of lord high admiral for the time being; every person so offending, being convicted thereof by the sentence of the court martial shall be cashiered, and be for ever afterwards rendered incapable to serve in any place or office in the naval service of His Majesty, his heirs and successors.

18. If any person in or belonging to the fleet shall make or endeavor to make any mutinous assembly upon any pretence whatsoever, every person offending herein, and being convicted thereof by the sentence of the court martial, shall suffer death: and if any person in or belonging to the fleet shall utter any words of sedition or mutiny, he shall suffer death, or such other punishment as a court martial shall deem him to deserve: and if any officer, mariner, or soldier on or belonging to the fleet, shall behave himself with contempt to his superior officer, being in the execution of his office, he shall be punished according to the nature of his offence by the judgment of a court martial.

19. If any person in the fleet shall conceal any traitorous or mutinous practice or design, being convicted thereof by the sentence of a court martial, he shall suffer death, or any other punishment as a court martial shall think fit; and if any person, in or belonging to the fleet, shall conceal any traitorous or mutinous words spoken by any, to the prejudice of His Majesty or government, or any words, practice, or design, tending to the hindrance of the service, and shall not forthwith reveal the same to the commanding officer, or being present at any mutiny or sedition, shall not use his utmost endeavours to suppress the same, he shall be punished as a court martial shall think he deserves.

20. If any person in the fleet shall find cause of complaint of the unwholesomeness of the victual, or upon other just ground, he shall quietly make the same known to his superior, or captain, or commander in chief, as the occasion may deserve, that such present remedy may be had as the matter may require; and the said superior, captain, or commander in chief, shall, as far as he is able, cause the same to be presently remedied; and no person in the fleet, upon any such or other pretence, shall attempt to stir up any disturbance, upon pain of such punishment, as a court martial shall think fit to inflict, according to the degree of the offence.

21. If any officer, mariner, soldier or other person in the fleet, shall strike any of his superior officers, or draw, or offer to draw, or lift up any weapon against him, being in the execution of his office, on any pretence whatsoever, every such person being convicted of any such offense, by the sentence of a court martial, shall suffer death; and if any officer, mariner, soldier or other person in the fleet, shall presume to quarrel with any of his superior officers, being in the execution of his office, or shall disobey any lawful command of any of his superior officers; every such person being convicted of any such offence, by the sentence of a court martial, shall suffer death, or such other punishment, as shall, according to the nature and degree of his offence, be inflicted upon him by the sentence of a court martial.

22. If any person in the fleet shall quarrel or fight with any other person in the fleet, or use reproachful or provoking speeches or gestures, tending to make any quarrel or disturbance, he shall, upon being convicted thereof, suffer such punishment as the offence shall deserve, and a court martial shall impose.

23. There shall be no wasteful expense of any powder, shot, ammunition, or other stores in the fleet, nor any embezzlement thereof, but the stores and provisions shall be careful preserved , upon pain of such punishment to be inflicted upon the offenders, abettors, buyers and receivers (being persons subject to naval discipline) as shall be by a court martial found just in that behalf.

24. Every person in the fleet, who shall unlawfully burn or set fire to any magazine or store of powder, or ship, boat, ketch, hoy or vessel, or tackle or furniture thereunto belonging, not then appertaining to an enemy, pirate, or rebel, being convicted of any such offence, by the sentence of a court martial, shall suffer death.

25. Care shall be taken in the conducting and steering of any of His Majesty's ships, that through willfulness, negligence, or other defaults, no ship be stranded, or run upon any rocks or sands, or split or hazarded, upon pain, that such as shall be found guilty therein, be punished by death, or such other punishment, as the offence by a court martial shall be judged to deserve.

26. No person in or belonging to the fleet shall sleep upon his watch, or negligently perform the duty imposed on him, or forsake his station, upon pain of death, or such other punishment as a court martial shall think fit to impose, and as the circumstances of the case shall require.

27. All murders committed by any person in the fleet, shall be punished with death by the sentence of a court martial.

28. If any person in the fleet shall commit the unnatural and detestable sin of buggery and sodomy with man or beast, he shall be punished with death by the sentence of a court martial.

29. All robbery committed by any person in the fleet, shall be punished with death, or otherwise, as a court martial, upon consideration of the circumstances, shall find meet.

30. Every officer or other person in the fleet, who shall knowingly make or sign a false muster or muster book, or who shall command, counsel, or procure the making or signing thereof, or who shall aid or abet any other person in the making or signing thereof, shall, upon proof of any such offence being made before a court martial, be cashiered, and rendered incapable of further employment in His Majesty's naval service.

31. No provost martial belonging to the fleet shall refuse to apprehend any criminal, whom he shall be authorized by legal warrant to apprehend, or to receive or keep any prisoner committed to his charge, or willfully suffer him to escape, being once in his custody, or dismiss him without lawful order, upon pain of such punishment as a court martial shall deem him fit to deserve; and all captains, officers, and others in the fleet, shall do their endeavour to detect, apprehend, and bring to punishment all offenders, and shall assist the officers appointed for that purpose therein, upon pain of being proceeded against, and punished by a court martial, according to the nature and degree of the offence.

32. If any flag officer, captain, or commander, or lieutenant belonging to the fleet, shall be convicted before a court martial of behaving in a scandalous, infamous, cruel, oppressive, or fraudulent manner, unbecoming the character of an officer, he shall be dismissed from His Majesty's service.

33. Every person being in actual service and full pay, and part of the crew in or belonging to any of His Majesty's ships or vessels of war, who shall be guilty of mutiny, desertion, or disobedience to any lawful command, in any part of His Majesty's dominions on shore, when in actual service relative to the fleet, shall be liable to be tried by a court martial, and suffer the like punishment for every such offence, as if the same had been committed at sea on board any of His Majesty's ships or vessels of war.

34. If any person who shall be in the actual service and full pay of His Majesty' ships and vessels of war, shall commit upon the shore, in any place or places out of His Majesty's dominions, any of the crimes punishable by these articles and orders, the person so offending shall be liable to be tried and punished for the same, in like manner, to all intents and purposes, as if the same crimes had been committed at sea, on board any of His Majesty's ships or vessels of war.

35. All other crimes not capital committed by any person or persons in the fleet, which are not mentioned in this act, or for which no punishment is hereby directed to be inflicted, shall be punished by the laws and customs in such cases used at sea.

Monday, April 1

Jane Austen's England, a Review

A mini book review by Tony Gerard

Jane Austen's England
Daily Life in the Georgian and Regency Periods
by Roy and Lesley Adkins

Ok, so it's not a naval book, but it is still material that all Acastas should be familiar with. It covers pretty much all aspects of English life in the time frame we portray. Various chapters cover childhood, marriage, transportation, crime and punishment, religion and superstition, social status, food, leisure pursuits, medical treatment, funeral customs and much more. 

As with their other books, the Adkins have continued the practice of  using very readable, non academic wording. Once again they have liberally stocked their text with lots of actual period quotes and accounts. One of their main sources is a 19th century parson, which should be of interest to our chaplain.

I especially recommend this book to the wives and sweethearts among our members. It will be an invaluable resource for developing your first person persona as you wait for your love to return from his commission!